Monday, July 7th, 2014

Tolosa Veraison Edna ValleyWe are right at the beginning of the ripening period for the vines. The red grapes show the start of this phase very obviously by turning from green to red. The French term for this is veraison. There’s no equivalent English word. In white grapes the change is more subtle. The berries soften a bit and the color shifts from bright green to a sort of yellowish green. This ripening period from now to harvest takes 4-6 weeks and it is the most crucial period in the vine’s cycle in terms of the quality and character of the vintage. The start of this phase has been dominated by lots of fog and moderate temperature, which are typical of this time of year. My fingers are crossed that this pattern holds as long as possible, because this allows the grapes to mature while maintaining maximum freshness and acidity. This vintage has been early at every phase. This is the earliest season I have ever seen in my long career. There’s an old adage, “early years get earlier, and late years get later”. It makes sense when you think about it. We are almost a full month ahead of average so the amount of daylight hours is much longer than it would typically be for this ripening phase. The vines are active more hours of the day and therefore will ripen the fruit more quickly. Late July and early August are when winemakers and viticulturists typically take vacation as it’s not a busy time. Carlos, our viticulturist, and I were talking yesterday. We were both laughing about having to change our normal vacation times.

Larry Brooks, Winemaker

In Bloom

Tuesday, May 6th, 2014

harvest (36)

The vines in our Estate vineyards began blooming a couple weeks ago. Once this stage of development starts I need to visit the blocks I’m using to track exactly when and how they flower, and when they set the fruit. There are close to 30 blocks that I use for the Tolosa wines, and they need to be looked at weekly to follow what going on. This is not a tough assignment when it’s at the height of spring weather, and it’s first thing in the morning before the winds start blowing like crazy! Paying close attention to the vines at this stage is important for a number of reasons; it gives you an idea of the size of the crop that will be coming in September, it tells you how uniform a particular block of vines will be in its ripeness, it lets you know within a week or so exactly when you will be picking the blocks (110-120 days after bloom), and it starts the clock for other phases of fruit development that you may wish to monitor. There is also slight floral perfume when a block is in full bloom that is only available to enjoy for a day or so that I would hate to miss.

Larry Brooks

Dry Spell (continued)…

Monday, February 24th, 2014

DSC01146We are certainly in a serious statewide drought here in California. It looks like the driest stretch in about 500 years, and it is without doubt the driest since records have been kept, 150 years or so in most locations. There have been historical super droughts that can be seen in tree ring records that have been 10-20 years in length, but that’s just too scary to even contemplate.

It needs to be borne in mind that local conditions and resources are extremely important. Just look at local municipalities in our county. Cambria, a small coastal hamlet to the north of us is on track to be pretty much out of water in late spring or early summer, the City of San Luis Obispo on the other hand has a seven and a half year supply at the moment. Different areas of the state have been more or less proactive about both conserving and storing water so the effects are varied. Mostly urban water will be prioritized, and no one expects that major city supplies will run dry. Very small towns may struggle, but will in general find solutions. Agriculture is another story. Ag uses about 80% of the water in California. Much of that is used in historically arid and warm interior areas where canals and pipe systems bring water specifically for crop use. A lot of these interior ag areas served by Federal and State water projects are in for a rough year. Recent rains in Northern California have helped the Sierra snowpack, but it is unlikely it will reach average this year.

Viticulture in general is conservative in its use of water compared to other crops. Grapevines are naturally drought tolerant, I personally worked with a dry farmed vineyard through the last major drought in ’86-’92, and that vineyard survived just fine. Grapevines use far less water even when fully supplied than most other crops. They use about a ¼ of what row crops use for example. Winegrowers in coastal areas have used drip irrigation for years, which is the most efficient system from a water conservation point of view.

Here most locally we depend on underground aquifers for our water. The Edna Valley has a relatively shallow aquifer, but it recharges easily because of the large area of hills around it that drains down into it. This aquifer had been in good balance for a long time. Unlike Paso Robles just north of us where the aquifer has been overdrawn for many years before the current drought.

We had to put winter irrigations on this year to keep the roots moist which is unusual, but the aquifer is in good shape at the moment. We can expect more rain for the next 4-8 weeks after which we will assess the situation. We do not absolutely need more rain in order to irrigate the vines, but we do need rain to flush out the soils and refresh them. When you irrigate salts tend to build up in the top layer of the soil. This has to be carried out of the root zine by rainfall. There’s virtually no way for us to flush the soils ourselves using irrigation. Only generous rainfall will accomplish this.

Water conservation is one aspect of our green and sustainable initiatives here at Tolosa. It was the first practice we put into place many years ago. Every drop of water that the winery uses is treated through a three pond system until it is clean enough to be returned to the vines.

– Tolosa Winemaker, Larry Brooks

Dry Spell?

Friday, January 31st, 2014

I recall in my first or second year as a winemaker asking a neighboring vineyard owner if this was a “normal year.” As I had little experience with effects of weather on vintage at that point I desired to know where the year fit within the spectrum of vintages. Like many things in wine growing his response surprised me, when he replied “There’s no such thing as a normal year.”

This year certainly is proof of that. We are well into a 3-year dry spell, and this fall and mid-winter are the driest I have seen in my 36 vintages, and according to most weather records the driest conditions for most of California in more than one hundred years. It is strange to be here in late January and not have a bit of cover crop growing in the vine rows and not a blade of grass evident in the hills. The aquifer that we draw from here in the Edna Valley is not particularly large or deep, but it does have the pattern of recovering quickly when it is drawn down. With any luck we will receive spring rain, as the rainy season is only half over at this point. Each and every year we have to farm to the season and we will do the same this year. I farmed in Carneros through the ’86-’92 drought with good success, and it is comforting to think that particular drought ended with monumental rainfall in March of ’92.

The wines are intriguing this time. The greatest of them is the 2011 “1772″ Chardonnay. I’vevineyardwater4 talked before about this vintage, which I consider one of the very finest I’ve had the privilege to make. The extraordinarily small crop combined with a cold dry year made for perfect Chardonnay at every level, and this “1772″ our highest level wine is exceptionally fine and classy. The 2013 Sauvignon Blanc has just been bottled and by the time you have a taste it will be a month or so along. I’m quite a fan of this wine in general and also of this vintage. It is one of our nicer ones, being on par with the 2008.


–Larry Brooks, Tolosa Winemaker

Pinot Noir Clones

Monday, January 20th, 2014

Larry's TourClones are only a relatively important part of the flavor makeup of Pinot Noir. I would say they rank roughly somewhere between 4th and 6th in terms of their influence on the wine’s flavor and quality. For whatever reason, it is something people focus on. Far more important from a flavor point-of-view, are soils, which I would rank 1st, and farming and root-stock which I would rank 2nd and 3rd. But people are interested in the subject, that here is some detail about how clones or selections play into our quality and style here at Tolosa.

We have more than 20 different blocks of Pinot scattered over our ranches. By trial and error we have found the top 12 or so, that reliably make the best wine every year. Here are the selections that are found in these blocks. There are of course others that are planted here and elsewhere that work perfectly well, but these are what work for us. I’ve listed them in order of their relative abundance.

Pommard is not a clone per se, but rather a selection. I’m pretty sure that we have Pommard 4, but not certain. This is the dominant selection in Oregon and is the majority planted in California as well. It tends to make small clusters, and where we have it planted it is low yielding. It is considered a “structural” selection in the sense that it makes a good base for blends bringing color extract and tannins. In some cases on the correct soil, it can also express great aromatic finesse, but this is the exception rather than the rule. We have extensive plantings of this on the Mountainside portion of our Edna Ranch and some on a sandy slope of the Oceanside portion. Our “Lily Gil” Pinot Noir has traditionally been selected from this, but is not “typical” of this selection. In most years this is the dominant selection for the Estate bottling.

Dijon 667 this is a clone selected in Burgundy, France. We have extensive plantings of this here at the Winery Ranch, both right in front of the winery and also on the northern boundary. This tends to make a complete wine with good color, tannin and fruit flavors. It is in most years, it has small berries and a low to moderate yield. Our “Marley Anne” Pinot Noir is typically dominated by this selection. This clone is a significant player in the Estate and “1772″ bottlings.

Dijon 115  this is a Burgundy clone. All of these are named for the experiment station in Dijon where they were selected in cooperation with Burgundy wine producers. We have a large block of this in front of the Winery and another block on the Mountainside area. This clone is one of the earliest selected in Dijon. It tends to make a very aromatic or what the French would call a feminine wine. It can be productive depending on soil and in some areas it need thinning. This clone is playing an increasing role in the Estate bottling, and has been used in the “1772″ and Marley Anne bottlings as well.

2A this is a bit confusing around here. Clone 2A is a Swiss selection, but what is called 2A in this area bears no resemblance to the 2A I’ve worked with in Carneros, and does not fit the clone’s description at all. I believe that what is called 2A around here is actually a field selection out of Tally’s vineyard that got misidentified when it was propagated. It tends to be very small berried, low yielding and is late to ripen. The stems can be quite tasty. It reacts strongly to the vintage and only makes grade A wine in the best years. We have bottled it separately as “Beyond” and it has been used in some “1772″ and most Estate bottlings. We have a large block of this on the Mountainside vineyards and some here at Winery.

Dijon 113 & 114 we have only tiny 1-acre blocks of each of these, 2013 was the first year we used them. They both made really nice wines! I think they are best suited for clonal bottlings and perhaps our newest Pinot Noir, “Aethereal.” They produced wine with abundant color and flavor last year, but only time will tell if they do that year in and year out. Dijon 114 has the distinction of being the most planted clone of Pinot worldwide.

Clone 23 this is another Swiss selection. We have not used this yet, but I am planning on trying some next year. Stay tuned!



Larry Brooks